"Besides showing the relevance of the geometric effect of the wave functions, our theory also predicts a number of observations that the experimentalists can check," explains Teemu Peltonen from the University of Jyväskylä. Compos Sci Technol 135:28–38, Idumah CI, Hassan A (2016) Characterization and preparation of conductive exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets kenaf fibre hybrid polypropylene composites. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6(6):4254–4263, Yousefi N, Gudarzi MM, Zheng Q, Lin X, Shen X, Jia J et al (2013) Highly aligned, ultralarge-size reduced graphene oxide/polyurethane nanocomposites: mechanical properties and moisture permeability. Carbon 50(3):815–827, Berhanuddin C, Idani N, Rozlan M, Azmirul S, Zaman I, Mustapa MS et al. Graphene, a single sheet of carbon atoms, has many extreme electrical and mechanical properties. The thermal conductivity of the epoxy nanocomposites was enhanced by the addition of carbon nanofillers [144]. Gu et al. [157] designed and fabricated vertical and horizontal graphene film-reinforced epoxy nanocomposites. Concluding tables are presented in this research to illustrate the fabrication processes of graphene composites in a variety of polymer matrices, thermal properties, and overall properties of hybrid nanocomposites. Clear distinction of these structures can be seen through AFM images only. Compos Sci Technol 117:26–31, Li C, Li Y, She X, Vongsvivut J, Li J, She F et al (2015) Reinforcement and deformation behaviors of polyvinyl alcohol/graphene/montmorillonite clay composites. Moreover, the graphene sheet with oxide agents (–O) and (–O/–OH) presents an anisotropic behavior. Furthermore, hybridization process leads to certain disadvantages concerned with the composition, degree of functionalization and interestingly the mixing of the two fillers in the polymer matrix. However, the corresponding values were noticed as 384.9 W m−1 K−1 for vertical nanocomposites, which was observed at two orders of the magnitude higher than that of the horizontal nanocomposites. Chem Mater 19(18):4396–4404, Asadollahi-yazdi H, Shariati M, Imam A, Ghatee M (2017) Investigating the mechanical properties of layered graphene/polyoxymethylene nanocomposites prepared by the spray method. (Note b and c are magnified SEM images taken from the circular and rectangular regions in (a), respectively); e effects of vol% and alignment of GNP on the mode-I fracture energy of the epoxy nanocomposites [102]. [188]. [150] prepared poly(vinylidene fluoride) PVDF/CNT/GNP and PVDF/GNP/CNT composites by adding GNPs into the PVDF/CNT and CNTs into PVDF/GNP composites. Polymer 55(21):5389–5395, Qian Y, Lan Y, Xu J, Ye F, Dai S (2014) Fabrication of polyimide-based nanocomposites containing functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets by in situ polymerization and their properties. Kostagiannakopoulou et al. Furthermore, authors have summarized research outcomes of recent experimental studies conducted on graphene- and modified graphene-reinforced nanocomposites for the evaluation of mechanical and thermal properties. Kim et al. The researchers implemented the direct mixing method and found that 3DGS/epoxy composites have superior mechanical properties and thermal stability as compared to EG/epoxy composites (Fig. Polymer 141:109–123, Zhao Y-H, Zhang Y-F, Wu Z-K, Bai S-L (2016) Synergic enhancement of thermal properties of polymer composites by graphene foam and carbon black. Prog Polym Sci 59:41–85, Kostagiannakopoulou C, Fiamegkou E, Sotiriadis G, Kostopoulos V (2016) Thermal conductivity of carbon nanoreinforced epoxy composites. Chin Chem Lett 29(1):161–165, Liu Q, Zhou X, Fan X, Zhu C, Yao X, Liu Z (2012) Mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy resin nanocomposites reinforced with graphene oxide. Carbon 97:71–77, Akhavan O, Ghaderi E, Rahimi K (2012) Adverse effects of graphene incorporated in TiO2 photocatalyst on minuscule animals under solar light irradiation. Beilstein J Nanotechnol 8:1909–1918, Subha S, Singh D, Venkatanarayanan P (2018) Thermal, ablation and mechanical properties of carbon–phenolic composites reinforced with zirconia coated graphene nanoplatelets. These steps typically come at cost but provide an ease in the fabrication process as compared to the functionalization of graphene for its improved interaction with other nanofillers to help expand the reactive sites of graphene and lead to the formation of fewer covalent bonds between the matrix and hybrid filler. Jang et al. 10% reduction in weight can improve the fuel efficiency by 6–8%; this improvement certainly makes petrol, electrical and alternative vehicles more competitive. This point signifies the behavior of the polymer from brittle to glassy to a rubbery state. or, by Aalto University. However, it was inferred that the LTE remains the same at concentrations lower than 3.0 wt% GNP loadings. [174] fabricated a hybrid GO/CF-reinforced epoxy composites in two steps: First, the GO was added with EP, and then the modified EP was brushed onto plies of CF fabrics, later stacked by a hot-pressing machine (Fig. Shan et al. Am J Mater Sci 6(6):157–165, Hawkins DA Jr, Haque A (2014) Fracture toughness of carbon-graphene/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites. Hallad et al. The impressive intrinsic mechanical properties of graphene, its stiffness, strength and toughness, are one of the reasons that make graphene stand out both as an individual material and as a reinforcing agent in composites. Angew Chem Int Ed 48(42):7752–7777, Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Morozov SV, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos SV et al (2004) Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Graphene-based nanostructured materials have been classified based on the presence of number of layers of the sheet, the orientation, surface modifications, or their total oxygen content (Fig. Finally, the reinforcing mechanisms of graphene on RPC were understood, and the dynamic compression constitutive of RPC was established, which provided a theoretical basis for understanding the dynamic mechanical properties and behaviors … You can be assured our editors closely monitor every feedback sent and will take appropriate actions. The discovery of the superconducting state in twisted bilayer graphene was selected as the Physics breakthrough of the year 2018 by the Physics World magazine, and it spurred an intense debate among physicist about the origin of superconductivity in graphene. Nano Lett 6(1):96–100, Jang W, Chen Z, Bao W, Lau CN, Dames C (2010) Thickness-dependent thermal conductivity of encased graphene and ultrathin graphite. [152] formulated the localized pyrene groups on poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (Py-PGMA) to make an effective covalent bonding and cross-linked structure in Py-PGMA-GNS/epoxy composites. J Control Release 173:75–88, Jang BZ, Zhamu A (2008) Processing of nanographene platelets (NGPs) and NGP nanocomposites: a review. Pour et al. The effectiveness of microscopy bouquet for the intrinsic characterization of graphene family and their composites was clearly demonstrated in this research. The content is provided for information purposes only. [138] determined the Tg of PVI-g-GO-reinforced epoxy from the DSC scan. [65] by using temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy. Science X Daily and the Weekly Email Newsletter are free features that allow you to receive your favorite sci-tech news updates in your email inbox. Chem Mater 26(15):4459–4465, Yu A, Ramesh P, Itkis ME, Bekyarova E, Haddon RC (2007) Graphite nanoplatelet − epoxy composite thermal interface materials. Xiao et al. Nat Mater 11(9):759–763, Rasool HI, Ophus C, Klug WS, Zettl A, Gimzewski JK (2013) Measurement of the intrinsic strength of crystalline and polycrystalline graphene. This is due to homogeneous distribution of fillers and improved load transfer capability between hydrogen bond contained by modifier and matrix. The results showed an increase in Young’s modulus of neat epoxy from 0.675 to 8.0 GPa with the addition of 0.5 wt% of modified graphene, i.e., 25% more than the unmodified graphene [104]. This may be attributed to the improved 3D network made in between solid particles and polymer matrix, which further leads to a higher percolation threshold for nanocomposites. The exceptional plane structures and geometries of the single-layer graphene were examined for their stiffness and breaking strength, and it was found to be 1.1 TPa and 125 GPa, respectively [49, 50]. The first section of the study mainly focuses on the fundamental properties of graphene family and its diverse properties including strength, stiffness, thermal conductivity, and coefficient of thermal expansion. Excellent structural strength and conductivity of graphene in polymer composites make them a potential candidate for aerospace applications. The concluding part of the current progress review enlists a few macro-level potential structural applications of graphene polymer nanocomposites as well as hybrid nanocomposites. googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-1449240174198-2'); }); Researchers at Aalto University and the University of Jyväskylä showed that graphene can be a superconductor at a much higher temperature than expected, due to a subtle quantum mechanics effect of graphene's electrons.