A typical HY female wing, dull overall with a molt limit between the greater coverts Photo by Marcel Gahbauer, Although the reasons for its decline are unknown, destruction of these canebrakes is the most likely reason for its demise. Audubon's Warbler differs by having a yellow throat instead of white. that the rectrices are broader and more rounded than expected. As is the case for most warblers, ASY males are the most boldly marked of all age/sex classes. coverts, and white patches on the three outermost rectrices. uppertail : "http://www. Both forms are quite recognizable and are a key call to learn for a bird watcher hoping to start sorting out migrating warblers in fall. The primary coverts tend to be relatively broad and rounded, and usually have silvery gray edging. ASY males have largely black uppertail coverts, with gray-blue edging that may be largely worn off by spring, especially toward the tips. and the lack of edging on the primary coverts. McGill Bird Observatory (QC), September 2008. ASY Yellow-rumped Warblers tend to have relatively broad, rounded, and fresh rectrices compared to SY individuals. The primary coverts are generally brownish with minimal beige edging. quite brownish, and the minimal edging on the primary coverts is also pale brown. McGill Bird Observatory (QC), September 2005. Upperparts with a fair amount of blue-gray; auricular sometimes mottled with black; dark wings with silvery edging to the primary coverts; rectrices dark, broad, rounded; black uppertail coverts with blue-gray edging. Banff National Park (AB), May 2007, JAN - JUL:  after-second-year As with males, SY females have minimal edging on the primary coverts, which if present if more of a beige-brown than silvery-gray. Yellow-rumped Warbler was the result of the lumping of forms formerly known as "Myrtle Warbler" and "Audubon's Warbler" in 1973 (according to Kaufmann, they were lumped because the two species were known to interbreed in a zone in southwestern Alberta, Canada). The crown is the top part of the birds head. females are distinctly paler than males, with the yellow and black markings on the breast much more limited. A typical ASY male Myrtle Warbler, with bold yellow and black on the breast, and a solid black mask. differences being the yellow instead of white throat, as well as more white on the wings and the lack of a pale supercilium or distinct facial mask. Upperparts brownish with some blue-gray; auricular brownish-gray; relatively dark but dull wings with gray edging to the primary coverts; rectrices broad, rounded; dark uppertail coverts with a mix of blue-gray and brown edging. Distinctions between SY and ASY females can be subtle, and usually a good look at the wing and tail is required to determine age, ASY Yellow-rumped Warblers tend to have relatively broad, rounded, and fresh rectrices compared to SY individuals. In summer, Yellow-rumped Warblers are birds of open coniferous forests and edges, and to a lesser extent deciduous forests. r4) and that there is a fair amount of brown on the uppertail coverts. Photo by Marcel Gahbauer, A typical AHY male Myrtle Warbler wing, dark overall, with the primary coverts broad and The pitch is mostly even but may rise or fall slightly, speeding up as it ends. Patterns are similar on SY male Audubon's Warbler, though retained juvenile feathers tend to be a bit more grayish than on Myrtle Warblers, and the alternate greater coverts have broader white edging. Photo by Marcel Gahbauer, A relatively "good" wing for an SY female Myrtle Warbler, with relatively little wear, but Brownish and streaked, with relatively dull and uniform wings. amount of white on r5 and r6, and a bit extending to r4; the uppertail coverts are mostly Yellow-rumped Warblers have two main calls. McGill Bird Observatory (QC), October 2005, A more typical AHY male tail, though note there is still a bit of brown at the tip of the A typical AHY female wing, showing a contrast between the greater and primary coverts, The HY - M Photo by Marcel Gahbauer, A typical AHY wing; note the silvery edging on the dark primary coverts. North America has ninety species of wood-warblers in twenty-six genera; included in this family are the yellowthroats, a seemingly dizzying array of warblers, and the waterthrushes. SY Yellow-rumped Warblers tend to have somewhat narrower and more pointed rectrices than ASY individuals.